Depression

Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. It can also be called major depression, major depressive disorder or clinical depression
It affects how you feel, think and behave and can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems. You may have trouble doing normal day-to-day activities, and depression may make you feel as if life isn’t worth living.
More than just a bout of the blues, depression isn’t a weakness, nor is it something that you can simply “snap out” of. Depression may require long-term treatment
TYPES OF DEPRESSION
Depression affects each person in different ways, so symptoms caused by depression vary from person to person. To clarify the type of depression you have, your doctor may add information to your depression diagnosis called a specifier. Specifiers include having depression with specific features, such as:
1) Anxious distress
Unusual restlessness or worry about possible events or loss of control
2) Mixed features
Simultaneous depression and mania, which includes elevated self-esteem, talking too much, and racing thoughts and ideas
3) Melancholic features
Severe depression with a profound lack of response to something that used to bring pleasure, associated with early morning awakening, worsened mood in the morning, significant changes in appetite, and feelings of guilt, agitation or sluggishness
4) Atypical features
Ability to be cheered by happy events, increased appetite, little need for sleep, sensitivity to rejection, and a heavy feeling in arms or legs
5) Psychotic features
Depression accompanied by delusions or hallucinations, which may involve themes of personal inadequacy or negative themes
6) Catatonia
Includes motor activity that involves either uncontrollable and purposeless movement or fixed and inflexible posture
7) Peripartum onset
Occurs during pregnancy or in the weeks or months after delivery (postpartum)
8) Seasonal pattern
Related to changes in seasons and diminished exposure to sunlight
SYMPTOMS OF DEPRESSION
  • Angry outbursts, irritability or frustration, even over small matters
  • Loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities, such as sex
  • Sleep disturbances, including insomnia or sleeping too much
  • Tiredness and lack of energy, so that even small tasks take extra effort
  • Changes in appetite — often reduced appetite and weight loss, but increased cravings for food and weight gain in some people
  • Anxiety, agitation or restlessness — for example, excessive worrying, pacing, hand-wringing or an inability to sit still
  • Slowed thinking, speaking or body movements
  • Feelings of worthlessness or guilt, fixating on past failures or blaming yourself for things that are not your responsibility
  • Trouble thinking, concentrating, making decisions and remembering things
  • Frequent thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts or suicide
  • Unexplained physical problems, such as back pain or headaches
  • For some people, depression symptoms are so severe that it’s obvious something isn’t right. Other people feel generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why.
  • Feelings of sadness, emptiness or unhappiness

 

YOU ARE AT A HIGHER OF SUFFERING FROM DEPRESSION IF;
  • You have history of anxiety disorder, borderline personality disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Abuse of alcohol or illegal drugs
  • Certain personality traits, such as having low self-esteem and being overly dependent, self-critical or pessimistic
  • Serious or chronic illness, such as cancer, diabetes or heart disease
  • Certain medications, such as some high blood pressure medications or sleeping pills (talk to your doctor before stopping any medication)
  • Traumatic or stressful events, such as physical or sexual abuse, the loss of a loved one, a difficult relationship or financial problems
  • Blood relatives with a history of depression, bipolar disorder, alcoholism or suicide

 

COMPLICATIONS
  • Excess weight or obesity, which can lead to heart disease and diabetes
  • Alcohol or substance abuse
  • Anxiety, panic disorder or social phobia
  • Family conflicts, relationship difficulties, and work or school problems
  • Social isolation
  • Suicidal feelings, suicide attempts or suicide
  • Self-mutilation, such as cutting
  • Premature death from other medical conditions

 

TREATMENT
1) Psychotherapy
Talking about your condition and other related issues with your mental health provider. These therapies can help you;
  • Identify negative beliefs and behaviors and replace them with healthy, positive ones
  • Explore relationships and experiences, and develop positive interactions with others
  • Find better ways to cope and solve problems
  • Identify issues that contribute to your depression and change behaviors that make it worse
  • Regain a sense of satisfaction and control in your life and help ease depression symptoms, such as hopelessness and anger
  • Learn to set realistic goals for your life
  • Develop the ability to tolerate and accept distress using healthier behaviors
2) Medication
Your doctor will prescribe suitable medication
3) Hospitalization and residential treatment program
In some people, depression is so severe that a hospital stay is needed. Inpatient hospitalization may be necessary if you can’t care for yourself properly or when you’re in immediate danger of harming yourself or someone else. Psychiatric treatment at a hospital can help keep you calm and safe until your mood improves.
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